The fifth pillar of Islam is to make a pilgrimage (Hajj) to Makkah, in Saudi Arabia, at least once in one's lifetime. This pillar is obligatory for every Muslim, male or female, provided that he/she is physically and financially able to do so.
Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “I heard the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) say: ‘Whoever does Hajj for the sake of Allah and does not have sexual relations (with his wife), commit sin, or dispute unjustly (during the Hajj), will come back like the day his mother gave birth to him.’” (Bukhaari: 1449, Muslim: 1350).
The Hajj is the ultimate form of worship, as it involves the spirit of all the other rituals and demands of the believer great sacrifice. On this unique occasion, upto 3 million Muslims from all over the globe meet one another in a given year. Regardless of the season, pilgrims wear special clothes (Ihram) - two, very simple, unsown white garments - which strips away all distinctions of wealth, status, class and culture; all stand together and equal before Allah.
The rites of Hajj, which go back to the time of Prophet Abraham who built the Ka'bah, are observed over five or six days, beginning on the eighth day of the last month of the year, named Dhul-Hijjah (pilgrimage). These rites include circumambulating the Ka'bah (Tawaf), and going between the mountains of Safa and Marwah, as Hajar (Abraham's wife) did during her search for water for her son Isma'il. Then the pilgrims stand together on the wide plain of Arafah and join in prayers for God's forgiveness, in what is often thought of as a preview of the Last Judgment. The pilgrims also cast stones at a stone pillar which represents Satan. The pilgrimage ends with a festival, called Eid Al-Adha, which is celebrated with prayers, the sacrifice of an animal, and the exchange of greetings and gifts in Muslim communities everywhere.
The first condition is that of being a Muslim. Non-Muslims are, first and foremost, obliged to become Muslims after which the daily, monthly, yearly and once in a lifetime duties of Islam successively become requirements. Hajj is a religious duty which must be accompanied by the correct belief in order for it to be accepted by Allah.
The second and third conditions are those of sanity and puberty. A Muslim has to have reached puberty and be of sound mind for his or her Hajj to become a duty. Divine rewards and punishments are given as a result of human choice between good and evil. Since a child or an insane person lack the ability to distinguish between good and evil, no religious duties are required of them. This principle of non-obligation is based on the following Hadith in which the Prophet (was reported to have said: "The pen is raised from (the book of deeds) of three: the sleeper until he awakes, the child until he becomes a young man, and the insane until he regains his sanity."
However, those who help such individuals perform Hajj are rewarded for their efforts. When the Prophet (peace be upon him) was asked by a woman about her child making Hajj, he replied that the child could, but the reward would be given to her. Hence the insane individual who made Hajj while in a state of insanity is still required to make Hajj if he regains his sanity. Likewise, children who make Hajj are required to do so again when they grow up. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "Any child who makes Hajj then reaches puberty must make another Hajj."
The fourth condition is that of ability based on the following Quranic verse:
And, pilgrimage to the House is duty on mankind to Allah for those who can find a way there.
[Noble Quran 3:97]
Similar statements of the Prophet (peace be upon him) define ability as being sufficient provisions and transportation. Hence, a Muslim has to be economically able to make the trip. If he has to borrow the money to make the journey, Hajj is not compulsory on him. In the case when one's family is left in debt or with insufficient funds, it is recommended that such an individual stay home until he is financially able. Muslims with physical disabilities are also not obliged to make Hajj unless they have the economic ability to pay others to carry them. Therefore, only those who are economically and physically able to perform the rigorous rites of Hajj are obliged to do so.
The fifth condition, that of a Mahram, concerns women only and could be included under the condition of ability. Since the Prophet (peace be upon him) forbade women from traveling for a distance requiring more than twenty-four hours unaccompanied by a male relative whom she can not marry (Mahram),women are not obliged to make Hajj unless they have a Mahram to accompany them. Thus, a woman without a Mahram is recommended not to try to make Hajj. However, if the woman has the means and the Mahram, she is obliged to do so. Ayshah asked the Prophet (peace be upon him): "O, Messenger of Allah, are women obliged to make Jihad (holy war)?" he replied, "They must make Jihad in which there is no fighting - Hajj and ‘Umrah."
The way in which the pilgrimage to Makkah can be performed and the regulations governing its rites vary according to where the pilgrim lives or whether intends to make‘Umrah along with Hajj or whether one wants to offer an animal sacrifice or not. These variations have been traditionally grouped into three categories and referred to as the three types of Hajj: Hajj Ifrad, Hajj Qiran and Hajj Tamattu‘. Any one of these three methods, if performed according to their regulations without doing any actions which invalidate them, fulfill the compulsory Islamic requirement of Hajj once in a lifetime. The three permissible kinds of Hajj with the rules and regulations governing each of them are as follows:
Isolated Hajj: The pilgrim performing it is called Mufrid. This type is allowed only for those living within the boundaries (Miqat) from which Ihram is put on.
Accompanied Hajj: The pilgrim performing it is called Qarin. It can only be done by those living outside the Miqat. "This concession is only for those whose homes are not near the sacred Mosque." [Noble Quran 2:196]
Enjoyable Hajj: The pilgrim performing it is called Mutamatti‘. It can only to be done by those living outside the Miqat
A pilgrim is required to enter the state of Ihram with the intention of doing Hajj only.
This is Hajj combined with ‘Umrah without coming out of Ihram, The Qarin should enter the state of Ihram with the intention of performing ‘Umrah and Hajj together. The Qarin is not allowed to come out of the Ihram no matter how long the period between his ‘Umrah and Hajj may be
‘Umrah is combined with Hajj under this type; however, a new Ihram is made for the Hajj After coming out of the Ihram of ‘Umrah, the Mutamatti‘ is allowed to do everything that was permitted before going into the state of Ihram.
If a Mufrid performs ‘Umrah during the months of Hajj (Shawwal, Dhul-Qa'dah & Dhul-Hijjah) prior to the beginning of the Hajj rites proper (8th of Dhul-Hijjah), he is no longer considered a Mufrid. He must now shift to one of the other two types of Hajj combine ‘Umrah along with them and their regulations must instead be followed
For Hajj Qiran, the ‘Umrah has to be done within the months of Hajj (Shawwal, Dhul-Qa'dah & the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah) and completed before beginning the rites of Hajj
The ‘Umrah has to be within the months of Hajj and must be completed before beginning the rites of Hajj. After completing ‘Umrah, the pilgrim making Hajj Tamattu‘ must come out of his or her state of Ihram.
When he reaches Mecca, he performs Tawaf for his arrival and Sa'i for Hajj known as Tawaf al Qudum (the arrival circuit). It is permissible for him to postpone his Sa'i for Hajj until after his Tawaf for Hajj.
When he reaches Mecca, he performs Tawaf for his arrival and Sa'i for Hajj
The Tawaf made for ‘Umrah takes the place of the arrival Tawaf (Tawaf al-Qudum). This is then followed by 2 Rak'as Salah near to Ibrahim's station (In case of heavy traffic he may do the Salah anywhere in the general area to avoid causing problems with those making their Tawaf).
No shaving or clipping hair, as he doesn’t disengage from Ihram. Instead, he remains in Ihram till after he stones Jamrah Al-Aqabah on the Eid day
The Qarin should clip his hair after ‘Umrah instead of shaving it
The Mutamatti‘ should clip his hair instead of shaving it to come out of his state of Ihram after completing the ‘Umrah part of his pilgrimage.
May offer an animal sacrifice if he wants to, but he is under no obligation to do so.
Must offer an animal sacrifice which he brought along with him from the boundaries known as the Miqat.
Must offer an animal sacrifice, but if he is unable to do so, he is required to fast for ten days according to Allah’s statement: "But if someone can not afford a sacrifice, he can fast three days during Hajj and seven row days after returning home. That is ten days in all." [Noble Quran 2:196]
روى مسلم في صحيحه عن ابْنَ عُمَرَ أَنّ رَسُولَ اللّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ إِذَا اسْتَوَىَ عَلَىَ بَعِيرِهِ خَارِجاً إِلَىَ سَفَرٍ، كَبّرَ ثَلاَثاً، ثُمّ قَالَ: سُبْحَانَ الّذِي سَخّرَ لَنَا هَذَا وَمَا كُنّا لَهُ مُقْرِنِينَ* وَإِنّا إِلَىَ رَبّنَا لَمُنْقَلِبُونَ. اللّهُمّ إِنّا نَسْأَلُكَ فِي سَفَرِنَا هَذَا الْبِرّ وَالتّقْوَىَ. وَمِنَ الْعَمَلِ مَا تَرْضَىَ. اللّهُمّ هَوّنْ عَلَيْنَا سَفَرَنَا هَذَا. وَاطْوِ عَنّا بُعْدَهُ. اللّهُمّ أَنْتَ الصّاحِبُ فِي السّفَرِ. وَالْخَلِيفَةُ فِي الأَهْلِ. اللّهُمّ إِنّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ وَعْثَاءِ السّفَرِ، وَكَآبَةِ الْمَنْظَرِ، وَسُوءِ الْمُنْقَلَبِ، فِي الْمَالِ وَالأَهْلِ". وَإِذَا رَجَعَ قَالَهُنّ. وَزَادَ فِيهِنّ: "آيِبُونَ، تَائِبُونَ، عَابِدُونَ، لِرَبّنَا حَامِدُونَ"
Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Subhanal-ladhi sakhkharalanahadha wa ma kunna lahumuqrinin. Wa "inna "ila Rabbina la-munqalibun. Allahumma "inna nas'aluka fi safarina hadhal-birrawat-taqwa, wa-minal-'amalima tarda, Allahummahawwin 'alayna safarana hadha watwi 'anna bu'dahu, Allahumma "Antas-sahibufis-safari, wal-khalifatufil-"ahli, Allahumma "inni "a'udhubika min wa'tha"is-safari, waka'abanl-manzari, wasu"il-munqalabifil-maliwal"ahli.
Allah is the Most Great. Allah is the Most Great. Allah is the Most Great. Glory is to Him Who has provided this for us though we could never have had it by our efforts. Surely, unto our Lord we are returning. O Allah, we ask You on this our journey for goodness and piety, and for works that are pleasing to You . O Allah , lighten this journey for us and make its distance easy for us . O Allah, You are our Companion on the road and the One in Whose care we leave our family . O Allah , I seek refuge in You from this journey's hardships, and from the wicked sights in store and from finding our family and property in misfortune upon returning.
1 – When a person wants to travel, it is mustahabb for him to consult those whose religious commitment, experience and knowledge he trusts about travelling at that time. The one who is consulted must be sincere in offering advice and avoid being influenced by whims and desires. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “and consult them in the affairs” [Aal ‘Imraan 3:159] The saheeh ahaadeeth indicate that the people used to consult the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) with regard to their affairs.
2 – Once he has decided to travel, the Sunnah is to seek Allaah’s guidance by praying istikhaarah. So he should pray two rak’ahs of non-obligatory prayer, then recite the du’aa’ of istikhaarah.
3 – If he has decided to travel for Hajj or umrah or any other purpose, he should start by repenting from all sins and makrooh actions, and he should put right any wrongs he has done towards people and pay off whatever he can of the debts he owes them; he should also return anything that has been entrusted to him and seek forgiveness from anyone with whom he has any dealings or friendship. He should write his will and have it witnessed, and he should appoint someone to pay off the debts that he was not able to pay. He should also leave with his family and those on whom he is obliged to spend enough funds to cover their needs until he returns.
4 – He should seek to please his parents and those whom he is obliged to honour and obey.
5 – If he is travelling for Hajj or jihad or any other purpose, he should strive to ensure that his funds are halaal and free from any suspicion. If he goes against this and goes for Hajj or jihad with wealth that has been seized by force, he is a sinner and although his Hajj or jihad may be outwardly valid, it will not be a proper Hajj (Hajj mabroor).
6 – It is mustahabb for the one who is travelling to Hajj or for any other purpose for which provision is carried to take a great deal of provision and money with him, so that he can share them with those who are in need. His provisions should be good (i.e., halaal), because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “O you who believe! Spend of the good things which you have (legally) earned, and of that which We have produced from the earth for you, and do not aim at that which is bad to spend from it” [al-Baqarah 2:267] He should give willingly so that it will be more likely to be accepted.
7 – If he wants to travel for Hajj or jihad, he should learn about how they are to be done, for no act of worship is valid if done by one who does not know it properly. It is mustahabb for the one who wants to do Hajj to take with him a clear book about the rituals which also speaks about their aims, and he should read it constantly and often throughout his journey, so that it will become fixed in his mind. Hence there is the fear that for some of the common folk, their Hajj will not be valid because they fail to fulfil one of the conditions and so on. And some of them may imitate some of the common folk of Makkah, thinking that they know the rituals properly and thus being deceived by them. That is a serious mistake. Similarly in the case of one who is going out for jihad etc, it is recommended for him to take a book which speaks of what he needs to know, and the warrior should learn what he needs to know about fighting and the du’aa’s to be said at that time, and the prohibitions on treachery, killing women and children, and so on. The one who is travelling for the purpose of trade should learn what he needs to know about buying and selling, which transactions are valid and which are invalid, what is halaal and what is haraam, and so on.
8 – It is mustahabb for him to seek a companion who desires good and hates evil, so that if he forgets, he can remind him, if he remembers, he can help him, and if he happens to be a man of knowledge, he should stick with him, because he will help him to avoid bad attitudes such as boredom with travel and he can help him to maintain a noble attitude and encourage him to do so. He should also be keen to please his companion throughout the journey. Each of them should put up with the other and view his companion with respect, and be patient with whatever he may do at some times.
9 – It is mustahabb for him to bid farewell to his family, neighbours, friends and all his loved ones. He should bid them farewell and he should say to each of them: “I place your religion, your faithfulness and the ends of your deeds in the trust of Allaah.” The one who is staying behind should say to the traveller: “May Allaah bless you with taqwa and forgive you your sins and make goodness easy for you wherever you are.”
10 – It is Sunnah to say the following du’aa’ when leaving the house: Bismillaah, tawakkaltu ‘ala Allaah, wa laa hawla wa laa quwwata illa Billaah. Allaahumma inni a’oodhu bika min an adilla aw udalla aw azilla aw uzalla aw azlima aw uzlama aw ajhala aw yujhal ‘alayya (In the name of Allaah, I put my trust in Allaah and there is no power and no strength except with Allaah. O Allaah, I seek refuge with You lest I should stray or be led astray, or slip or be tripped, or do wrong or be wronged, or behave foolishly or be treated foolishly).”
11 – The Sunnah when leaving one's house and wanting to get up on one's mount is to say Bismillah. Then when he has mounted it he should say: “Al-hamdu Lillaah illadhi sakhkhara lana hadha wa ma kunna lahu muqrineen wa inna ila rabbina la munqaliboon (In the name of Allaah… All praise be to Allaah Who has placed this (transport) at our service and we ourselves would not have been capable of that, and to our Lord is our final destiny.” Then he should say Al-hamdu Lillaah (praise be to Allaah) three times and Allaahu akbar (Allaah is most Great) three times, then, “Subhaanaka inni zalamtu nafsi faghfir li innahu la yaghfir ul-dhunooba illa anta (Glory be to You, verily I have wronged myself, so forgive me, for surely no one can forgive sins except You).” And: “Allaahumma inna nas’aluka fi safarina haadha al-birra wa’l-taqwa wa min al-‘aml ma tarda, Allaahumma hawwin ‘alayna safarana haadha watwi ‘anna bu’dahu. Allaahumma anta al-saahib fi’l-safar wa’l-khaleefah fi’l-ahl. Allaahumma inni a’oodhu bika min wa’tha’ al-safar wa ka’aabat al-manzar wa su’ al-munqalib fi’l-maali wa’l-ahl (O Allaah, we ask You for righteousness and piety in this journey of ours, and we ask You for deeds which please You. O Allaah, facilitate our journey and let us cover its distance quickly. O Allaah, You are the Companion on the journey and the Successor (the One Who guards them in a person’s absence) over the family. O Allaah, I seek refuge with You from the difficulties of travel, from having a change of heart and from being in a bad predicament, and I seek refuge with You from an ill-fated outcome with regard to wealth and family).” When returning the same words are recited with the following addition: “Aayiboona taa’iboona ‘aabidoona li rabbina haamidoon (Returning, repenting, worshipping and praising our Lord).”
12 – It is mustahabb to travel with a group of people, because of the hadeeth of ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “If the people knew what I know about being alone, no one would ever travel alone at night.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari.
13 – It is mustahabb for the group to appoint the best and wisest of their number as their leader, and to obey him, because of the hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed and Abu Hurayrah who said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “When three people set out on a journey, let them appoint one of their number as their leader.” A hasan hadeeth narrated by Abu Dawood with a hasan isnaad.
14 – It is mustahabb to set out at the end of the night, because of the hadeeth of Anas who said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “You should travel at the end of the night (or throughout the night) because it is easier to cover a greater distance at night.” This was narrated by Abu Dawood with a hasan hadeeth. It was also narrated by al-Haakim who said: it is saheeh according to the conditions of al-Bukhaari and Muslim.
15 – He should adopt a kind and good attitude, and avoid arguing or pushing and shoving people on the road. He should guard his tongue against insults, backbiting, cursing his mount or any other kind of foul speech.
16 – It is mustahabb for the traveller to say takbeer when going up a rise in the land and to say tasbeeh when going down into valleys and the like.
17 – If he sees a village or town that he wants to enter, it is mustahabb for him to say: “Allaahumma as’aluka khayraha wa khayra ahliha wa khayra ma fiha wa ‘a’oodhu bika min sharriha wa sharri ahliha wa sharri ma fiha (O Allaah, I ask You for its goodness, the goodness of its people and the goodness of what is in it, and I seek refuge with You from its evil, the evil of its people and the evil of what is in it).”
18 – It is mustahabb for him to make du’aa’ most of the time when travelling, because his du’aa’ will be answered.
19 - He should try to remain in a state of purity and to pray on time. Allaah has made it easy by allowing tayammum and joining and shortening of prayers.
20 – The Sunnah when stopping in a place is to say what was narrated by Khawlah bint Hakeem, who said: I heard the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say: “Whoever makes a stop then says: ‘A’oodhu bi kalimaat Allaah il-taammati min sharri ma khalaq (I seek refuge in the perfect words of Allaah from the evil of that which He has created),’ nothing will harm him until he moves on from that place.” Narrated by Muslim.
21 – It is mustahabb for a travelling group to camp close to one another and not to be scattered or separated needlessly, because of the hadeeth of Abu Tha’labah al-Khushani (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: When the people stopped in a place, they would scatter in the mountain passes and valleys. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Your scattering in these mountain passes and valleys is something from the Shaytaan.” After that, they never stopped in any place without being close together. Narrated by Abu Dawood with a hasan isnaad.
22 – The Sunnah for the traveller is that when he has done what he set out to do, he should hasten to return to his family, because of the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah, according to which the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Travel is a kind of torment, which keeps one of you from his food and drink. When one of you has finished what he set out to do, let him hasten back to his family.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari and Muslim.
23 – The Sunnah is to say when returning from a journey that which is narrated in the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar, according to which the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), when he came back from a campaign or from Hajj and ‘Umrah, he would say takbeer on every high ground three times, then he would say, ‘Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah wahdahu laa shareeka lah, lahu’l-mulk wa lahu’l-hamd wa huwa ‘ala kulli shay’in qadeer. Aayiboona taa’iboona ‘aabidoona, saajidoona li rabbina haamidoon. Sadaqa Allaahu wa’dah wa nasara ‘abdah wa hazama al-ahzaaba wahdah (There is no god but Allaah alone, with no partner or associate. His is the Dominion, to Him be all praise, and He is Able to do all things. Returning, repenting, worshipping, prostrating to our Lord and praising Him. Allaah fulfilled His promise, granted victory to His slave and defeated the confederates Alone). Narrated by al-Bukhaari and Muslim. It was narrated that Anas said: We came back with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and when we reached the outskirts of Madinah he said: “Aayiboona taa’iboona ‘aabidoona li rabbina haamidoon (Returning, repenting, worshipping and praising our Lord).” And he kept saying that until we came to Madinah. Narrated by Muslim.
24 – The Sunnah when returning home is to start by going to the mosque that is nearest one's home and praying two rak’ahs with the intention of offering salaat al-qudoom (the prayer of arrival), because of the hadeeth of Ka’b ibn Maalik, according to which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), when he came back from a journey, would start by going to the mosque where he would pray two rak’ahs and then sit down. Narrated by al-Bukhaari and Muslim.
25 – It is mustahabb to make food for the returning traveller, whether it is made by the traveller himself or by someone else for him, as indicated by the hadeeth of Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him), according to which the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), when he came back to Madinah from a journey, would slaughter a camel or a cow. Narrated by al-Bukhaari.
26 – It is haraam for a woman to travel without a mahram unnecessarily, whether that is a long or a short distance, because of the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “It is not permissible for a woman who believes in Allaah and the Last Day to travel for the distance of one day and one night except with a mahram.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari and Muslim.
End quote from al-Nawawi.
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
The etiquette of travelling for Hajj is divided into two categories: obligatory and mustahabb. The obligatory etiquette means that the traveller should fulfil all the obligations and pillars (essential parts) of Hajj, and avoid the things that are forbidden in ihraam in particular, and the things that are forbidden in general, whether they are forbidden in ihraam or when not in ihraam, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“The Hajj (pilgrimage) is (in) the well-known (lunar year) months (i.e. the 10th month, the 11th month and the first ten days of the 12th month of the Islamic calendar, i.e. two months and ten days). So whosoever intends to perform Hajj therein (by assuming Ihraam), then he should not have sexual relations (with his wife), nor commit sin, nor dispute unjustly during the Hajj” [al-Baqarah 2:197]
The mustahabb etiquette when travelling for Hajj is for a person to do all the things that he should do, such as being generous to people, serving his brothers, putting up with their annoyance, not retaliating to mistreatment, and being kind to them, whether that is after he puts on the ihraam or before, because this etiquette is sublime and good, and is required of every believer at all times and in all places. There are also other points of etiquette that has to do with the act of worship, such as doing Hajj in the most perfect manner and striving to do it with the proper etiquette in both world and deen.
Meeqat is an Arabic word; it literally means "a confirmed place". It is a place beyond which no Muslim who is intending to perform Hajj or 'Umrah can go towards Makkah without being in a state of Ihram
Meeqat sets the boundaries of the Haram from all directions approaching Makkah. Upon crossing the Meeqat a person should consider it binding upon himself to respect any rules that may apply to him, as he should consider himself having entered the haram upon crossing the Meeqat.
Proceeding in Ihram at the time of crossing the Meeqat is one of the rules binding upon those who enter the haram with the intention of Hajj or Umrah
The Meeqats (places for assuming Ihram) are five: DhulHulaifah, Al-Juhfah, Qarn-ulmanaazil, Yalamlam and DhaatuIrq. They are for those who live there and those who pass by them intending Hajj or 'Umrah. And he whose house is nearer than them to Makkah then he makes Ihram from his house, the people of Makkah making Ihram from Makkah.
Dhul Hulaifah-is the place for the people of Madinah and is a village six or seven miles away - and it is the furthest Meeqat from Makkah -. This miqat is about 9 kilometers from Madinah and about 450 kilometers from Makkah. This miqat is now known as ABIYAR ALI
Al-juhfah- is a village between Madinah and Makkah - about three travel stages away. It is the meeqat for the people of Madinah if they come by this route. IbnTaimiyyah said: "It is the Meeqat for those who make Hajj from the direction of the west, like the people of Shaam (Greater Syria) and Egypt and the rest of the West. And it is today ruined and deserted; therefore the people now go into Ihram before it in the place called "Raabigh". This miqat is about 190 kilometers to the northwest of Makkah.
Qarn Ul Manaaaio - which is also called "Qarn-uth-Tha'aalib" is near Makkah - being a day and night's journey away - and is the Meeqat for the people of Najd. This miqat is a hilly place about 90 kilometers to the east of Makkah.
YALAMLAM- is a place two nights distant from Makkah, thirty miles away and is the Meeqat for the people of Yemen. This miqat is a hilly area about 50 kilometers to the southeast ofMakkah. This is the miqat for the people of Yemen and others coming from that direction. It is the miqat for many of the pilgrims from China, Japan, India, Pakistan who come by ship.
DHAATU IRQ- is a place out in the desert, marking the border between Najd and Tihaamah, being forty-two miles from Makkah. It is the Meeqat for the people of Iraq. This miqat is about 85 kilometers towards the northeast side of Makkah. This is the miqat for the people of Iran, Iraq and for those coming from that direction.
The literal meaning of Ihram is to make haraam (forbidden). When a haji pronounces the Niyyah (intention) of Hajj and Umrah and utters Talbiyah, certain halaal (permissible) things become haraam for him. This combined action (Niyyah and Talbiyah) is called Ihram. The two sheets that a haji wears are figuratively known as Ihram but the real Ihram is Niyyah & Talbiyah. If someone wears these two sheets and does not declare his intention and utter Talbiyah, he does not become a Muhrim. That is why, before Niyyah and Talbiyah, he can cover his head during two rakahs of Nafl, an act which is not allowed in the real state of Ihram
After intention and Talbiyah, you are in the status of Ihram and from this time on you should not do acts that are forbidden in Ihram , for example, here are some of the things a muhrim must not do:
Cover head (men), cover face (women)
Cover the middle bone of the upper part of the feet (Both men and women))
Shave / cut hair
Wear stitched clothing (men) / (Women can wear their ordinay clothes)
Hunting / killing
Preparations for Ihram. Comb your hair, shape the beard, trim your mustache, cut your nails, and remove unwanted body hair.
Purification. Take a bath with the intention of Ihram otherwise do wudu. Here it is noted that there are two ways of purification:
Purification of the body, shower or wudu.
Internal purification, sincere repentance on your sins. Say something like this: "O Allah, I sincerely repent on my sins and seek your forgiveness."
Ihram Sheets. Men should wear a sheet of white cloth around the waist and cover the upper body with the other sheet. Women's ordinary clothes are their Ihram. Both should wear the flip-flops (hawai chappal) so that the middle bones of the upper part of the feet are not covered.
Nafl Salah. If it is not makruh (undesirable) time, offer two rakahs of nafl for Ihram by covering your heads.
Advice. If going to Jeddah by an airplane, it is convenient to get into the status of Ihram inside the plane. Here is what you do. Do everything at home or at the airport except Niyyah (intention) and Talbiyah. Have your shower, pray two rakahs of nafl but you are still not in the status of ihram because you haven't done the main thing yet, i.e., intention and Talbiyah which is done at or before the boundary line called Miqat.
Go to the airplane and sit down with the white sheets on. In a Hajj flight when you are close to Miqat, the pilot will announce that this is the border line to make your intention and to say Talbiyah. Those who did not change their clothes before should do so now although it is not convenient inside the plane. Please note that:
It is a good idea to ask at the time of boarding if the arrival of Miqat will be announced by the pilot. If not, make your intention and say Talbiyah on your own approximately one hour before you reach Jeddah.
If you are flying with a group, follow the instructions of the group leader.
Intention and Talbiyah. Now uncover your head and declare your intention. It is assumed that you are performing Hajj al-Tammat'u in which Umrah is performed first as described later in the "Kinds of Hajj".
O Allah! I intend to perform Umrah. Please make it easy for me and accept it from me. Amen."
Immediately after that utter the words of Talbiyah three times and as often afterwards as possible. If you don't remember it, you can say its translation in English or in any other language but Talbiah or its translation is pronounced in a loud voice by men and in a subdued voice by women.
Journey towards Makkah. When this sacred journey towards Makkah al-Mukarrama starts, recite Talbiyah frequently on the way. Then enter the city very humbly and with great fondness still reciting Talbiyah.
After arranging for your residence, proceed to the Haram Sharif to perform Umrah.
Dua at the first sight of kabba
Complete tawaf (7 circuits of kabba)
Read 2 rakat at mukaam e ibrahim
Do Saee (7 times from safa to marwa is counted as one)
Finally men shave hair/cut hair from all roud the head an women to cut hair 1/4 of length of finger
The date 8 DHULHIJA starts after the Maghrib prayer of 7 DHULHIJA Complete all the Hajj preparations during these night hours.
Preparations for Ihraam
Comb your hair, shape the beard, trim your mustache, cut your nails, and remove unwanted body hair.
Take a bath with the intention of Ihram otherwise do wudu.
Men should wear a sheet of white cloth around the waist and cover the upper body with the other sheet. Women's ordinary clothes are their Ihram. Both should wear the flip-flops so that the middle bones of the upper part of the feet are not covered.
If it is not makruh (undesirable) time offer two rakahs of nafl for Ihram
Intention and Talbiyah
Declare your intention saying: "O Allah! I intend to perform Hajj. Please make it easy for me and accept it from me. Amen." Immediately after that utter the words of Talbiyah three times and as often afterwards as possible. Men should say it in a loud voice but women should say it in a subdued tone.
Prohibitions of Ihram
Now the prohibitions of Ihram start. Recall their detail and follow the rules. From this point on men cannot cover their heads for the duration of Ihram.
Departure to Mina
After the sunrise proceed towards Mina. On the way, pronounce Talbiyah as often as you can and also utter other supplications. But it is ok to follow the procedure of your Mu'allim who usually arranges for hajis to leave for Mina during the night after Isha prayers.
In Mina offer Zuhar, Asr, Maghrib and Isha prayers. Spend that night in Mina and on 9 DHULHIJA, , if you already have not left for Arafat offer Fajr prayer there.
Departure for Arafat
Offer Fajr prayer, say Takbir Tashriq (Allah-u Akbar, Allah-u Akbar La Ilaha ill-Allah wa-Allah-u Akbar, Allah-u Akbar wa Lillah-il-hamd) and Talbiyah. Get ready and reach Arafat by zawal (declining of the sun).
Waquf is started at the beginning of zawal (declining of the sun) and ends at the sunset. Spend this time uttering Talbiyah, repent on your sins, seek forgiveness and mercy of Allah, say Darud Sharif and utter all the supplications (du'as) in Arabic and in your own language. It is better to do Waquf while standing but sitting down is also allowed.
Zuhr and Asr Prayers
In Masjid-e-Namrah, the imam leads Zuhr and Asr prayers, combined and shortened, at Zuhr time with one adhan but separate iqamahs. At other places in Arafat, some people similarly combine these two salats. But it is advisable that away from Masjid-e-Namrah, offer them at their proper times with jama'at as recommended by the most scholars.
Departure for Muzdalifah
When the sun sets in in Arafat, proceed to Muzdalifah without offering Maghrib prayer reciting Zikr and Talbiyah on the way.
Maghrib and Isha Prayers
In Muzdalifah offer Maghrib and Isha prayers together at Isha time. For both prayers there is one adhan and one iqamah.
Zikr and Du'a
This is a very blessed night in which glorify Allah, recite Darud Sharif, read Quran, utter Talbiyah and supplicate very humbly. Also take some rest.
Pick up forty-nine pebbles of the size of big grams (chick peas) if Rami is to be performed for three days and seventy if for four days.
Fajr Prayer and Waquf
At the Fajr time after two rakah Sunnah, offer Fard prayer with jama'at. then perform waquf.
Return to Mina
Proceed to Mina when the sun is about to rise or When directed by molim & group leader.
Rami of Jamrah Aqabah
In Mina, hit Jamrah Aqabah with seven pebbles one after the other. On account of risk to life, the old, weak or sick persons can perform Rami a little before sunset or at night.
Stop saying Talbiyah when you throw the first pebble. Also don't stop for du'a. Just go to your residence and do Qurbani (animal sacrifice).
Qurbani (Animal Sacrifice)
There are three days designated for qurbani, i.e., 10, 11 or 12 Zil Hijjah. It can be done any time during day or night. It is usually easy to sacrifice an animal on 11 Zil Hijjah. Do qurbani yourself or ask a reliable person to do it for you.
Halq or Qasr
After qurbani men should preferably get their whole head shaved (Halq) but it is permissible to cut the hair (Qasr) of their whole head equal in length to a joint of a finger (about an inch). It is also permissible to cut the hair (about an inch) of one fourth of the head. A woman is prohibited to shave her head. She can cut about an inch long hair of one fourth of her head. But according to some scholars it is sufficient for a woman to have a lock of her hair clipped.
Now perform Tawaf-e-Ziarat. It can be performed any time, day or night, from 10 Zil Hijjah to the sunset of 12 Zil Hijjah. Usually it is convenient to do it on 11 Zil Hijjah. Its procedure is similar to that of Tawaf of Umrah and it is essential that you have performed wudu. According to Sunnah this tawaf is to be performed after Rami, sacrifice and shaving or clipping of the hair, and every effort should be made to do that, but the Fard stands discharged even if Tawaf-e-Ziarat is performed prior to all these practices. As mentioned earlier, Halq or Qasr after Qurbani lifts all the prohibitions of Ihram but the private relations between man and wife are permitted only after this Tawaf.
Sa'ee of Hajj
After this perform Sa'ee. Its procedure is the same as that of Sa'ee of Umrah. It is a Sunnah to make sure that your wudu is intact
Return to Mina
Return to Mina when Sa'ee is done and spend the night there.
Rami of Jamrarat
Throw seven pebbles on each of three Jamarat after zawal (decline of the sun). Rami is usually easy a little before sunset and at night. And it is permissible to do Rami at night if there is a risk to life.
Throw seven pebbles at Jamrah Oolah. Then move a little forward. And with your hands raised and facing Qibla, praise Allah and recite Arabic du'as or supplicate in your own words. There are no prescribed du'as.
After this throw seven pebbles at Jamrah Wustah. Here too facing Qiblah, praise Allah and earnestly seek his mercy and blessings. No particular du'a is prescribed here either.
Do not supplicate
Then throw seven pebbles on Jamrah Aqabah. But this time do not supplicate at all, after Rami just return to your place.
Second chance for Tawaf of Ziarah
If you could not do Tawaf-e-Ziarah yesterday, do it today and return to Mina for overnight stay.
Zikr and Ibadah
At your residence, recite Quran, glorify Allah, repent on your sins, and seek forgiveness. Ask Allah whatever you want and don't commit any sin.
Rami of Jamrarat
Throw seven pebbles on each of three Jamarat after zawal (decline of the sun). Rami is usually easy a little before sunset and at night. And it is permissible to do Rami at night if there is a risk to life.
Throw seven pebbles at Jamrah Oolah. Then move a little forward. And with your hands raised and facing Qibla, praise Allah and recite Arabic du'as or supplicate in your own words. There are no prescribed du'as.
After this throw seven pebbles at Jamrah Wustah. And facing Qiblah, glorify Allah, recite Darud Sharif and supplicate earnestly for whatever you desire. There is no du'a prescribed for this occassion.
Do not supplicate
Then throw seven pebbles on Jamrah Aqabah and come back to your residence without any du'a.
Last chance for Tawaf of Ziarah
If you could not do Tawaf-e-Ziarah earlier, it is essential to do it today before Maghrib.
After Hajj, when you intend to return to your country from Makkah, it is Wajib (obligatory) to perform Tawaf-e-Wida (Farewell Tawaf). Its procedure is the same as that of a Nafl Tawaf.
Masjid al-Haram was built around the Kaaba. It is also the largest mosque in the world. It was first built under the leadership of the Caliph Omar Ibn al-Khattab (634-644) and has been modified continuously under several Muslim rulers. Omar, the first Caliph, ordered the demolition of some houses surrounding the Kaaba in order to accommodate the growing number of pilgrims and built a 1.5 meter high wall to delineate a large prayer area. During the reign of his successor Caliph UthmanIbnAffan (644-656), the prayer space was enlarged and was covered with a roof carried on wooden columns and arches. In 692, after Caliph Abdul Malik bin Marwan conquered Mecca from IbnZubayr, the guardian of the holy site, the outer walls of the mosque were raised, the ceiling was covered with teak and the column capitals were painted in gold. His son, al-Walid (705-715), contributed to the Mosque of al-Haram by replacing the wooden columns with marble ones and by decorating its arches with mosaics. Later, Abbasid Caliph Abu Ja’far al-Mansur (754-775) added mosaics to the columns. He also doubled the size of the northern and western wings of the prayer hall and erected the minaret of Bab al-Umra on the northwest corner. In 777, due to the growing number of pilgrims, Abbasid Caliph al-Mahdi (775-785) ordered the rebuilding of the mosque, demolishing more houses around the Ka’ba. The new mosque enclosure centered on the Kaaba, measured 196 meters by 142 meters. It was built on a grid plan, with marble columns from Egypt and Syria, decorated with gilt teak wooden inlay. Al-Mahdi also built three minarets crowned with crenellations and placed above Bab al-Salam, Bab Ali and Bab al-Wadi of the mosque.
The very first construction of the Kaaba was done by Prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him) and his son Ismail as a house of worhip to one God. Allah (the Glorified and Exalted) says in the Quran that this was the first house that was built for humanity to worship Allah (the Glorified and Exalted). Soon after Prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him) died, people started filling the Kaaba with idols. It was not until Prophet Muhammad (may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) defeated the idol-worshippers that the idols inside the Kaaba were destroyed.
Muslims around the world face the Kaaba during prayers, no matter where they are. This is called facing the Qiblah.
As mentioned in this verse in the Quran, “Verily, We have seen the turning of your (Muhammad’s) face towards the heaven. Surely, We shall turn you to a Qiblah (prayer direction) that shall please you, so turn your face in the direction of Masjid al-Haram. And wheresoever you people are, turn your faces (in prayer) in that direction.” [2:144 ]
Maqam e Ibrahim
Located near the Holy Kaaba, Maqam Ibrahim is a highly sacred place for the Muslims of all over the world. This Holy place has a unique historical significance because of its relation with the construction of Holy kaaba, the house of Almighty Allah. Muslims from all over the world visit this place while performing the Holy Pilgrimage of kaaba, offer prayers and seek forgiveness of Almighty Allah.
History of Maqam e Ibrahim
A large stone block on which Prophet Ibrahim (May Peace Be Up on Him) stood while he was constructing the Holy Kaaba. Sent from the heavens, the stone used to move around, up and down as per the instructions of Prophet Ibrahim (May peace Be Upon Him), helping the Prophet of Allah to build the walls of Kaaba with the assistance of his son Prophet Ismail (May Peace Be Up on Him). After the completion of Kaaba, the stone was left besides the house of Allah on its Eastern side and remained there till the times of Umar, the second caliphate of Muslims, when it was moved a bit away, towards the front of Kaaba (present location), as it was obstructing the performance of ‘Tawaaf’ during Hajj. An amazing feature about this stone is that even after hundreds of years, the footprints of Prophet Ibrahim (May Peace Be Up on Him) are fresh, visible and identifiable, one of the miracles of Prophet Ibrahim (May Peace Be Up on Him) and a signs of the oneness of Allah.
The area between the Hajar al-Aswad and the Door of the Ka’bahis called the Multazam.
It is approximately two metres wide and is a place where du’as (supplications) are accepted.
The Well of Zamzam is a well located within the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca,Saudi Arabia, 20 m (66 ft) east of the Kaaba, the holiest place in Islam. According to Islamic belief, it is a miraculously generated source of water from God, which began thousands of years ago when Abraham's (Ibrāhīm) infant son Ishmael (ʼIsmāʻīl) was thirsty and kept crying for water. Millions of pilgrims visit the well each year while performing the Hajj or Umrah pilgrimages, in order to drink its water.
Islamic tradition states that the Zamzam Well was revealed to (Hājar), the second wife of Abrahamand mother of Ishmael.By the instruction of God, Abraham left his wife and son at a spot in the desert and walked away. She was desperately seeking water for her infant son, but she could not find any, as Mecca is located in a hot dry valley with few sources of water. Hagar ran seven times back and forth in the scorching heat between the two hills of Safa and Marwah, looking for water. Getting thirstier by the second, the infant Ishmael scraped the land with his feet, where suddenly water sprang out. There are other versions of the story involving God sending his angel, (Jibra'il), who kicked the ground with his heel (or wing), and the water rose. The name of the well comes from the phrase ZomëZomë, meaning "stop flowing", a command repeated by Hagar during her attempt to contain the spring water.[1
Abraham rebuilt the Bayt Allah near the site of the well, a building which had been originally constructed by Adam and today is called the Kaaba, a building toward which Muslims around the world face in prayer, five times each day. The Zamzam Well is located approximately 20 m (66 ft) east of the Kaaba.
Safa & Marwa
Safa and Marwah are the two mountains between which Hajra (upon her be peace) rushed seven times to see if she could spot any water or anyone from whom she could get some in order to give to her infant Ismail (upon him be peace). This action is copied by all pilgrims performing Hajj or Umrah and is known as Sa’ee. The strip of ground between Safa and Marwah is referred to as the Mas’aa.
It is agree that the visit of the Prophet (peace be upon him) is one of the greatest blessings and best acts of submission. The visitor must also intend to visit the prophet's mosque as we were told that a prayer there is better than a thousand prayers in other mosques except for Al-Masjid al-Haram. The Messenger of Allah peace be upon him said:
"Journeys are only set out for three mosques: Al-Masjid al-Haram, my mosque and Al-Masjid al-Aqsa".
And Ibn Omar (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said:
"Whoever visits my grave surely will receive my intercession".
While heading towards Madinah, the visitor should send blessings and salutations upon the Prophet (peace be upon him) as much as possible and to beseech Allah to make him benefit from his visit and to accept his deed, and he invokes: (O Allah! Open the gates of Your Mercy for me and grant me with the visit of Your prophet (peace be upon him) what you have granted Your allies and obedient worshippers, and pardon me and have mercy upon me. You are the best Grantor).
It is preferable to have a bath (Ghusl) before he enters Madinah, to wear his cleanest clothes and to summon heartly the honour of Madinah.
So when he arrives at the door of the Prophet's Mosque (peace be upon him), he should forward his right leg while entering and his left leg when leaving.
He enters and goes to Al-Rawda (the garden) (The area between the pulpit and the tomb has a green carpet, whereas the rest of the mosque has a red carpet). He prays two rak'as, then goes to the prophet's tomb and he stands in front of his honoured face (peace be upon him) at about four cubits (a cubit is 18 inches) from the wall of the honoured tomb, in absolute reverence. Then he salutes without raising his voice, but in a tone between a concealed and an audible voice, out of respect to the Prophet (peace be upon him).
The visitor invokes with all his heart lowering his gaze and voice in calmness and stillness:
"Peace be upon you Messenger of Allah, peace be upon you Prophet of Allah, peace be upon you the dearly loved by Allah, peace be upon you the best blessed among Allah's creatures, peace be upon you the favoured by Allah, peace be upon you chief of Messengers and the seal of the prophets, peace be upon you leader of "al-ghorr al-muhajaleen" (those who have white spots on their foreheads and are white-footed from prayers and ablution), peace be upon you and upon your sincere virtuous family, peace be upon you and upon your chaste wives, mothers of the believers, peace be upon you and upon all your companions, peace be upon you and upon all good servants of Allah. May Allah reward you Messenger of Allah on our behalf as best He rewarded a prophet and a Messenger for his nation, and may Allah send his blessings upon you whenever praisers mention you and unmindful people forget mentioning you. I testify there is no deity but Allah and I testify that you are His slave and Messenger, His faithful trustee and the best among his creatures. I testify that you have delivered the Message, and fulfilled the Trust, and advised the nation and struggled for the sake of Allah in the best way."
(He who doesn't have enough time for that or is unable to memorise the invocation, he may say some parts of the mentioned form)
If anyone entrusted him to salute Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) he should say: " Greetings to you, Messenger of Allah from so and so, son of so and so".
Then he moves about a cubit to the right and greets Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with him) and says : "Peace be upon you the Prophet's Caliph, peace be upon you companion of Allah's Messenger in the cave, peace be upon you his companion in travels, peace be upon you the keeper of his secrets. May Allah reward you for Islam and Muslims. O Allah! I ask You to be pleased with him and be pleased with us for him".
Then he moves about a cubit to the right and greets 'Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) saying: "Peace be upon you the leader of believers, peace be upon you by whom Allah supported this religion. May Allah reward you the best reward for Islam and Muslims. O Allah, I ask You to be pleased with him and be pleased with us for him".
Then he returns to the honourable Rawda (Garden) and prays and invokes as much as possible.
It is desirable to go to Al-Baqi' everyday especially on Friday morning after saluting Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him). When he gets there, he says:
"Peace be upon you the home of the righteous believers, and we are - by Allah's will - your followers. O Allah! Forgive the dwellers of Al-Baqi', O Allah! forgive us and them".
The visitor should pay a visit to Masjid Quba' to pray there as the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to go to Quba' riding and walking, where he used to pray there two rak'as. Preferably, this visit should be on a Saturday (if possible) as the Messenger (peace be upon him) used to go there every Saturday.
It is also recommended to visit the martyrs of Uhud on Thursday, especially the leader of martyrs Hamza - the uncle of the prophet (peace be upon him).
It is recommended to pray all the prayers in Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (the Prophet's mosque). Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the prophet (peace be upon him) said:
(A prayer in this mosque of mine is better than a thousand prayers in other mosques except for al Masjid Al-Haram).
It is desirable for the visitor when he wants to depart and travel to take leave of the Prophet's mosque by performing two rak'as and invoking for what he likes then he comes to the Noble Presence (Al Hadra al-Sharifah), pays salutations as he had done earlier and invokes with insistence earnestly and says farewell to the Prophet (peace be upon him) saying: "O Allah! Do not make this visit the last one to the Haram of Your Messenger (peace be upon him) and make my return to the two holy mosques an easy way by Your favor and grace, grant me pardon, good health and protection in this world and in the Hereafter and return us safely, sound and prosperous to our countries". And he says: "Not saying farewell Messenger of Allah".
8th Dhul Hijjah
“Labbayka Allaahumma labbayk, labbayka laa shareeka laka labbayk, innal-humda wan- ni mata laka wal-mulk, laa shareeyka lak”
9th Dhul Hijjah
10th Dhul Hijjah
11th Dhul Hijjah
12th Dhul Hijjah
13th Dhul Hijjah
YOUR HAJJ IS NOW COMPLETE INSHALLAH. HAJJ e MAQBOOL AND HAJJ e MABROOR!
01 – Introduction to Hajj & Umrah
02 – 1st Day of Hajj – 8th Zul Hujjah
03 – 2nd Day of Hajj – 9th Zul Hijjah
04 – 3rd Day of Hajj – 10th Zul Hijjah
05 – 4/5th Day of Hajj – 11/12th Zul Hijjah
06 – Ziyaarah of Madinah Al Munawarrah